Ecology (from Greekοἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is a branch of biology concerning interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment, which includes both biotic and abiotic components.
Topics of interest include the 
biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between speciesEcosystems are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem processes, such as primary productionpedogenesisnutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits.
Ecology is not synonymous with environmentalism, natural history, or environmental science. It overlaps with the closely related sciences of evolutionary biologygenetics, and ethology. An important focus for ecologists is to improve the understanding of how biodiversity affects ecological function. 
Ecologists seek to explain:
  • Life processes, interactions, and adaptations
  • The movement of materials and energy through living communities
  • The successional development of ecosystems
  • The abundance and distribution of organisms and biodiversity in the context of the environment.
Ecology has practical applications in conservation biologywetland management, natural resource management(agroecology
inherit;">agriculture, forestryagroforestryfisheries), city planning (urban ecology), community healtheconomicsbasic and applied science, and human social interaction (human ecology). 

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