2016 necta f4

(For Both School and Private Candidates)


1. This paper consists of sections A, B, C and D.

2. Answer all questions in sections A, B and C and one (1) question from each part of section D.

3. Map extract of Hanang (Sheet 84/4) is provided.

4. Calculators and Cellular phones are not allowed in the examination room.

5. Write your Examination Number on every page of your answer booklet(s)

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.


1. For each of the items (i) - (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter in the answer booklet provided.

    (i) The speed of the earth quake waves in the earth is changed at a line called

        A.Mohorovic discontinuity

        B.Gutenberg discontinuity



    (ii) Liverpool team scored a goal at 5.00 pm in England (15° W). At what time the goal was scored in Dar es Salaam (45° E) 
        A. 1.00 p.m

        B. 7.00 p.m

        C. 9.45 p.m

        D. 9.00 p.m

        E. 6.30 a.m.

    (iii) The sun is overhead at tropic of Capricorn every year on
         A. 22nd December     
         B. 21st March 
         C. 23rd September

         D. 21st June          
         E. 24th March.

   (iv) Day reaches its maximum length on 21st June in

         A. Southern hemisphere

         B. Northern Hemisphere

         C. Arctic Circle 

         D. Polar region   

         E. Tropic of Capricorn. 

   (v) Which of the following planets have small celestial bodies in orbit around them?

         .A. Mercury, Jupiter and Uranus

          B. Pluto, Earth and Mars 

          C. Earth, Jupiter and Saturn

          D. Mercury, Venus and Earth

          E. Venus, Earth and Saturn.

    (vi) Deposition of soil materials removed from one horizon to another is called

          A. Convex sided

          B. Concave sided

          C. Gentle sided resistance
          D. Steep sided resistant

          E. Steep sided non resistance.

    (vii) The excessive strong wind blowing across an extensive ocean surface is called

          A. Tsunami

          B. Ocean currents 

          C. Storm surge 

          D. Hurricane

          E. Wind.

   (viii) Rainfall that occurs when the air moves towards a hill or a mountain is called

          A. cyclonic 

          B. orographic 

          C. convectional 

          D.   showers

          E. typhoon. 

   (ix) Mountains can be classified on the basis of

          A. their importance  

          B. their surrounding

          C. their composition

          D. their formation

          E. their height.

   (x) A channel diverging from the main river and flowing into the sea or a lake by a separate mouth is called

         A. tributary

         B. stream  

         C. distributary

         D. river basin

         E. water shade.

2. Match the items in List A with the responses inList B by writing the letter of the correct response beside the item number in the answer booklet provided.
List A
List B
(i)    Water that flows out of the ground.

(ii) Water that seep out of rocks and into the rock holes.

(iii) Water that enters the rocks of the earth’s surface.

(iv) Interaction of water vapour, precipitation, infiltration, run off, evaporation and condensation.

(v) Water that is saturated in permeable rocks.

B. Doline

C. Water cycle

D. Artesian basin

E. Aquifer

F. Uvula

G. Spring

H. Ground water

I.  Juvenile water

J.  Bore holes

K. Well

3.(a)Describe discordant drainage system.

   (b)Explain the process of river transport and describe four ways in which a river transports its load.

SECTION B (27 Marks)

Answer all questions this section.


4.(a)(i) Define simple divided circle.

        (ii) Give four merits of using simple divided circle.

   (b) Carefully study the bar graph presented below showing production of crops in tones (“000”) from Ujamaa village in 2010, and then answers the questions that follow.

       (i) Draw the above bar graph to a simple divided circle by showing all the procedures.

       (ii)Give two possible factors for variation of crops production in the above bar graph provided.

5.(a) Point out four objectives of doing research in Tanzania 
   (b) Describe the following terms as used in research: 

         (i) Case study

         (ii) Feasibility study.

        (iii) Participatory observation.

        (iv) Research hypothesis.

        (v)  Research problem.

6 (a)Explain two major forms of measurements in land surveying.

   (b)(i) Define leveling.

        (ii) Explain four significances of leveling.

SECTION C (28 Marks)

Answer all questions in this section.


7.         Carefully study the map extract of Hanang (Sheet 84/4) provided and answer the following questions:

   (a) Express the map scale as a statement.

   (b) Find the bearing of grid reference 720220 to 680180.

   (c) Giving three evidences from the map, suggest the climate of the mapped area.

   (d) Suggest with evidence, five major economic activities which might take place in the area.

   (e) Give four supportive contents of a topographical map provided.

   (f)  Mention three factors which affected the contents of the map given.

8. Study the photograph provided below and then answer the questions that follows:

 (a) Name the type of photograph.

 (b) Give three characteristics of the type of photograph in (a) above.

 (c)  Explain four possible factors which may cause the loss of biodiversity in the photograph.

 (d) Give two economic importance of the area.

 (e) In three points, describe the importance of the vegetation shown in the area.

SECTION D (20 Marks)

Answer one (1) question from each part.


9.   Evaluate six factors that determine exploitation of minerals in a country.

10. Explain six factors that hinder development of river transportation in Africa.


11. Describe five measures to control floods to the environment.

12. Analyse eight problems associated with growth of urban settlement.






3(a) Discordant drainage system refers to thedrainage system that is opposed to the dominant structure.

  There are two main types of discordant drainage system which are 

      (i). Superimposed drainage and

      (ii). Antecedent drainage.

                i. Superimposed drainage 

     Superimposed drainage describes a river valley or part of valley that developed on a former cover of rocks and which is now superimposed onto a previously buried and completely different rock structure to which it is discordant. 

     Superimposed or superpose river valley are younger in age than thstructure which they cut across. They develop in areas where an ancient land surface once covered by sedimentary rocks or lava flows.

                ii. Antecedent drainage.

     Antecedent drainage describes a river valley or part of valley that developed on a former landscape later uplifted by local earth movements, but which was able to maintain its course by eroding vertically at a rate that was fast enough to keep pace with the rising land.

      Antecedent river valleys are therefore older in age than the structure to which they are discordant. They are most common in areas of fairly recent enough for a river to maintain its down cutting and where there as been insufficient time for the drainage to become completely adjusted to the structure.

             (b) Explanation of  the process of rivertransport are as follow

                  (i). The large the river the greater amount of energy available for transporting the load. Although it must also be remembered that a large river will have corresponding large load to transport. The Zambezi, for example discharges 100 million tons of sedimentary each year.

                  (ii). A rivers load includes weathered debris from the valley side and rock particle eroded from the bottom and sides of the channel.

Th            The sides of the load vary according to the volume and speed of water. During floods the great increase in discharge make it possible for rivers to move much large load, that is, they are carrying capacity is greatly increased.

                  (iii). The load carrying ability of the river is also indicated by its competence. Competence is defined as the largest particles the river can move and it varies with the speed with the speed and volume of the water. Only during floods are rivers competent to move very large boulders. The size of the load at any point also depend the geology and climate of the area through which the river is flowing.

                   (iv). Stream load is important since it affects the rate of erosion.
      Too great a load reduces the erosive power and leads to deposition. As the load is carried downstream, the materials are gradually reduced in size by striking against each other and against the cannel sides.

        Four ways in which a river transports its load are

T          The rolling of large particles and boulders along the bed. 

           ii. Saltation
The bouncing of small particles along the bed.

          iii. Suspension
The movement of very fine particles held up by turbulence of the water.

The movement of materials dissolved in water.

4 a .(i).  A simple divided circle is also known as pie chart, circle chart or pie graph. The chart involves dividing the circle into “pie slices” to represent and show relative sizes of data. The size of each slice or segment is always proportional to the value it represents.

       (ii) Four merits of using simple divided circle are 

  •   It is easy to compare components as they are represented by angles.

  •  Analysis and interpretation of data is easy.

  •    It is easy to assess the proportion of individual components against the total.

  • Construction of this graphical representation is relatively simple.

  •    It is easy to determine the value of each component since it is indicated on each segment.

  •    Visual impression of the individual components is clear and facilitates theunderstanding of the information in the data.

b.(i) To draw the above bar graph to a simple divided circle by showing all the procedures.

Step 1: Find the total number of production of crops in tones

Step 2: Change number of production of crops into degree.

Cassava  72.99/217 ×360°= 121.°

Millet  67.41/217 ×360°=113°

Maize 52.63/217 ×360°=87°

Beans 16.51/217 ×360°=27°

Ground nuts 7.46/217 ×360°=12°

Step 3: Draw a circle of a reasonable size.

Step 4:  Using a protractor, draw a radius from the 6 o’clock mark to the centre of the circle.

Step 5:  Starting with the largest segment representing a specific component, measure and draw its angle from the center of the circle.

Step 6:   Do the same for other components in ascending order.

Step 7:   Divide a circle into segments according to the sizes of the angles.

Step 8:   Shade the segments and write the title and key of the drawn graph.


      (ii) Two possible factors for variation of crops production  are
  •   Rainfall

  •  Temperature

5a.   four objectives of doing research in Tanzania are

      (i)  To describe about certain phenomena

      (ii)  To search for a new knowledge/insights.

      (iii) To develop theory about certain social economic  phenomena.

      (iv)  To test hypothesis so as to find out their reliability.

      (v)  To be familiar with a certain phenomena

      (vi)  To find solution to the existing problems.

      (vii)  To make evaluation of a certain issue.

  (b) Description of the following terms as used in research: 

Case study

A case study is an account of an activity, event or problem that contains a real or hypothetical situation and includes the complexities you would encounter in the workplace. Case studies are used to help you see how the complexities of real life influence decisions.

 Feasibility study.

A feasibility study is an analysis of how successfully a project can be completed, accounting for factors that affect it such as economic, technological, legal and scheduling factors.Researcher use feasibility studies to determine potential positive and negative outcomes of a project before investing a considerable amount of time and money into it.

 Participatory observation.
                  Is one type of data collection method,  In this method the researcher becomes part of people under study he/ she participates fully on a particular event.
                  Research hypothesis.

       This is an assumption used on what one expects to find out in the field it can be either true or false or Hypothesis is a prediction of outcome of the results. It is the statement of expected results. Research hypothesis is usually tested before the study begins. E.g. Poor students classrooms attendance results to poor academic performance. The hypothesis are; -Involvement of students in economic activities. -Poor family income. -Poor parental care.

Research problem.

Research problem is the question that researcher want to answer or to solve. 


Research problem is a statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to the need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation.

6(a) Two major forms of measurements in land surveying are

      (i) Chain or tape surveying

      (ii) Leveling surveying

  (b)(i)  leveling is the procedure by which the heights of the points on the Earth’s surface are determined.

       (ii)four significances of leveling are  
·         It help the surveyor or cartographer to make contour maps of the land sea surface. This is because it determine the benchmark

·         Leveling can be used for determination of heights or elevation of the land surface such as hills, valleys, plans, etc.

·         Housing foundation, the location of industrial sites, the route of communication and sites of building can be located and determine with the help of leveling.

·         It help contractors to lay a level ground on which they can elect the building.

7(a)  2centimetrers on a map represent 1kilometre on actual ground.

  (b)  The bearing of grid reference 720220 to 680180 is 225° SW

  (c)  Types of climate is Equatorial Climate due to the following evidences

      (i)  . Latitude located at 4°20’ on a map.

      (ii). Due to the Presence of the forest  on a map

      (iii). Due to the Presence of grain store which show availability of grain on a mapped area, grain cultivated on equatorial areas.

 (d)  Five major economic activities which might take place in the area are

      (i). Lumbering due to the Presence of the forest on a map

      (ii). Commercial Farming due to the Presence of grain store on a map.

      (iii). Fishing due to the presence of salt lake Balangida and seasonal swamp on a map.

      (iv). Tourism activities due to the presence of Dabil escarpment on a map.

      (v).  Commercial animal keeping due to the presence of Dabil cattle market and veterinary Rinderpest.

  (e)  Four supportive contents of a topographical map provided are 

·         Title

·         Scale

·         north direction and

·         key

  (f) Three factors which affected the contents of themap are

      (i). Purpose of the map

      (ii). Scale of the map  

      (iii). Date of compilation  

8.(a) Type of photograph is Horizontal/ Ground photograph

   (b) Three characteristics of the type of photograph in (a) above are 

       (i). Objects are large and clearly shown in these photographs when they are close than those far from the camera

       (ii). The fore ground and the horizon is seen but the back /dead ground is not seen

       (iii).  There is no fixed scale

(c)  Four possible factors which may cause the loss of biodiversity in the photograph are.

        (i). Loss of giraffe because of poaching

        (ii). Pollution, poison of air, water and soil lead to the death of giraffe

        (iii). Pests and diseases can kill large number of giraffe.

        (iv). Earthquakes can kill giraffe in large number.

(d) Two economic importance of the area are 

        (i). It used in Conservation of wildlife.

        (ii).It is a Source of government revenue

 (e) In three points, to describe the importance of the vegetation shown in the area.

        (i). Vegetation provides wildlife habitat and food.

        (ii). Vegetation releases oxygen and sequesters carbon. 

        (iii). Vegetation affects soil development over time, generally contributing to a more productive soil.

9.  Mining Is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials which form the package of economic interest to the miners.

     Six factors that determine exploitation of minerals in a country are

         (i). Availability of capital to be invested in the mining industry like buying the machinery. Lack of enough capital, the mining industry develops slowly.

         (ii).  Nature of transport system. If the transport system is efficient mining develops fast but if the transport is poor then mining does not develop fast.

         (iii).   Availability of labour. Is another factor that contributes to the development of the mining sector, for mining to develop fast there should be readily available labour but if labour is unavailable then mining becomes poor

         (iv).  Nature of market. If the market is good then the mining industry grows fast if it is poor the mining industry develops slowly.

          (v).  Water availability. This also leads to the fast development of the mining industry if the supply of water is reliable. But the situation is different when the supply of water is poor. Water is needed for cooling the engines of the machines and cleaning the minerals.

          (vi). Nature of government policy. If the policy is supportive the mining industry develops fast but if the government policy is non supportive then the mining industry develops slowly.

          (vii). The availability of deposits and their value. If the deposits are large and valuable mining takes place fast. But if the deposits are small and poor valuable mining take place slowly.

10. Transport can be defined as the movement of people, animals, goods or services from one place to another.

       Six factors that hinder development of river transportation in Africa are 

           (i). Lack of capital:

           (ii). Lack of skilled labour

           (iii). High fuel costs

           (iv). Impassable waterways.

           (v). Corruption and embezzlement.

           (vi). Political problems.

11.   Floods refers the period of high river discharge or over flow of water along the coast due to extremely high tides and storm waves.

        Five measures to control floods to the environment are 

           (i). There should be proper management of the watershed catchment areas through planting trees people should be allowed to settle in the catchment areas

           (ii). Construction of dams across the river channels helps in combating the problem of flood which affects the low land areas.

           (iii). The stream of the rivers should be deeper widened and straightened so as to increase the speed of the river down the slope to the sea.

           (iv). People should be frequent inspection and cleaning of the drainage by flooding.

           (v). There should be frequent inspection and cleaning of the drainage system.

           (vi). Availability of rescue team which is skilled and actives in rescuing people affected by floods

           (vii). International cooperation should be intensified so as to improve the techniques of combating this environmental problem.

12.  Settlement  is the place where people live together and engage in various social, economic, and political activities. Example: industrial activities, Agricultural activities, educational activities.

       Eight problems associated with growth of urban settlement are 

            (i) Rise of transport problem e.g. Traffic congestion.

            (ii) Presence of unplanned houses.

            (iii) Lack of enough water supply leading to serious disease.

            (iv) Shortage of social services e.g. School, health centers etc.

            (v) Overcrowding/over population leading to the crimes such as prostitution, robber and theft.

            (vi) Unemployment.

            (vii) Rural urban migration leading to scarcity of labour in rural area.

            (viii) Environmental deterioration.