2010 Necta form 4


(For School Candidates Only)

Time: 3 Hours        


    1. This paper consists of sections A, B, C and D.

    2. Answer ​all​ questions in sections A, B and C and ​one (1)​ question from each part of section D.

    3.  Map extract of LINDI is provided.

    4. Credit will be given for the use of relevant sketch maps and diagrams.

    5. Calculators and cellular phones are ​not​ allowed in the examination room.

    6.  Write your ​Examination Number​ on every page of your answer booklet(s)

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer ​all​ questions in this section.


1.      For each of the items (i)  (x), choose the correct answer from among the given alternatives and write its letter beside the item number.

(i) Crater lakes are most likely to be formed in

            A areas of fold mountains

            B   intensively faulted areas

            C downwarped areas

            D regions where subsidence is taking place

            E areas of active vulcanicity.

(ii) Which one of the following is not associated with earthquakes?

             A  Body waves

             B  Geyser

             C  Richter scale

             D  Seismograph

             E  Focus.

   (iii) If the time at town X 15°E is 12.00 noon, what could be the longitude of town Y if it is
8.00 a.m?

            A  15°W

            B  30°E

            C  45°W

            D  30°W

            E  45°E

  (iv) Which one of the following, by origin and composition is not a form of igneous rocks?

             A  Sill

             B  Gypsum

             C  Lava plain

             D  Volcano

             E  Granite.

      (v)   One of the following features is a product of weathering:

             A  Earth pillar

             B  Gully

             C  Lilly

             D  Hot springs

             E  Soil creep.

      (vi)  The process of river erosion where fragments are worn out during collision against each other is termed as

            A  hydraulic action

            B  attrition

            C  abrasion

            D  corrosion

            E  hydrolysis.

     (vii) A scale of 4 cm representing 18 km on the ground will be represented by representative fraction (R.F) scale as

            A  1 : 900000

            B  1 : 1800000

            C  1 : 450000

            D  2 : 900000

            E  1 ; 10,000

     (viii)  Which one of the following owes its origin to deflation?

           A  Qattara depression

           B  Lake turkana

           C  Tekekitarn

           D  Lake Chad

           E  Lake Victoria.

     (ix)  The presence of paired terraces on both sides of a river valley indicates that

           A  river capture has taken place

           B  lateral erosion is dominant

           C  sea level has risen

           D  rejuvenation has taken place

           E  truncated spurs have retreated.

     (x)  A good example of intrusive igneous rocks is

           A  gneiss

           B  basalt

           C  gabbro

           D  marble

           E  limestone.

2. Match the items in ​List A​ with the responses in ​List B​ by writing the letter of the correct
response beside the item number.

(i) Saucershaped structure of permeable rock layer lying between two impermeable rocks

(ii) A process by which wind transport loose materials

(iii)Part of the land that lies between high water and low water

(iv) A volcano made of viscous lava

(v) One of the components of soil
A Deflation
B Shore    
C Soil porosity 
D Saltation     
E Coastline  
F Artesian basin  
G Composite cone 

H Inorganic matter  

I Aquifer       
J.Cummulo dome

3. (a) What is meant by marine erosion?

    (b) Describe four (4) processes which are involved in marine erosion.

SECTION B (27 Marks)

Answer all questions this section.


4. Carefully study the data in the table below showing importation of motor vehicles from Europe in 2009, and answer the questions that follow:
Name of Motor Vehicle Number of
Motor Vehicle

  (a) Draw a divided circle to represent the data. 

  (b) Show the disadvantages of the method you have used in (a) above.

5. Hypothesis formulation can be used in both qualitative and quantitative research. Examine the problems faced in hypothesis formulation

6. The chairman of Mivumoni village advised his village mates to use simple chain survey in order to get the right measurements of their farms. Show the merits and demerits of simple chain survey.

SECTION C (28 Marks)

Answer all​questions in this section.


7. Carefully study the map Extract of LINDI provided, and then answer the following questions.
   (a) Explain the possible reasons for the uneven population distribution in the area.

   (b) How long in Kilometers is the Lindi Nachingwea all weather road (bound surface).

   (c) Giving two evidence from the map, name the type of climate experienced in this area.

   (d) How big in Km​ square is the area covered by the forest south of grid line​ ​160?

8. Carefully study the photograph provided below and then answer the questions that follow

  (a) Name the crop shown in the photograph.

  (b) Mention the natural conditions which favour the growth of the crop

  (c) Tanzania is very famous in growing the crop mentioned in (a) above. Name the regions of Tanzania which grow the crop at commercial level.

  (d) With concrete evidence, explain the scale of production as shown on the photograph.

SECTION D (20 Marks)

Answer ​one (1)​ question from each part.


9. In order to achieve economic development, transport and communication are inevitable. Describe the significance of transportation in developing countries.

10.Discuss the reasons for the low level of industrial development in SubSaharan Africa.

11.Examine the best ways which can ensure a sustainable use of forestry resources.

12.How does rapid population explosion affect small scale agriculture?





3.(a). Marine erosion refers to the erosion of the coastal area which caused by the action of ocean waves and currents.
    (b) The following are the four (4) processes which are involved in marine erosion.

        (i). Hydraulic action

 In this action waves breaking at the foot of a cliff force air in cracks to be compressed. Loose rocks rocks are dislodged and removed. When the waves retreats the compressed air rushes  out of the crack and can further weaken faults in the cliff face.

        (ii).  Abrasion

Abrasion is the sand paper effect of loose rocks being scraped along bare rock. It often smooths and polishes the rock.

        (iii).  Corrasion

Corrasion is when rock caught up in surging waves are hurled at a cliff face causing it to be clipped and gauged.

        (iv).   Attrition

Attrition is when rocks carried by seawater collide graduary making them smaller and smoother.

4.(a) To draw a divided circle to represent the data.

         First step  add all number of motor vehicles.
         430+192+108+70= 800
         Second step: change motor vehicle data into degree.

         Jeep: (430/800)×360°=193.5°
         Jeep= 193.5°

         Benz: (192/800)×360°=86.4°
         Benz= 86.4°

         BMW: (180/800)×360°=31.5°

         Rimoussene (70/800)×360°=31.5°
         Rimoussene = 31.5°

 Third step: draw Divided circle using above data


Formulation hypothesis is an Assumption used on what one expects to find out in the fields.Research hypothesis is usually tested before the study begins.
     The following are the problems faced in hypothesis formulation.

   (i) Lack of ability to utilize theoriticaly framework

   (ii) Absence of clear theoriticaly frame work.

   (iii). Bias

   (iv). Insufficient knowledge of a problem

   (v).  Unclear hypothesis.

6.     Chain Survey refers to the  surveying method in which linear measurements of an area are taken. Chain survey referred as tape survey.
         The following are the merits and demerits of simple chain survey.


    (i). It is suitable for surveying flat surface on the Earth’s surface, for example a school compound

   (ii). It can be red easily and quickly

   (iii) It is the simplest method of surveying through the old method

   (iv) It is suitable for surveying clear areas

   (v). It can be easily repaired or rectified in the field

   (vi) It tends not to attract attention.


   (i). They become longer or shorter due to continuous use

   (ii). It is not suitable for surveying large areas

   (iii). More difficult areas cannot be chain surveyed

   (iv). Errors may be encountered due to the use of many chains and other reasons

   (v). It is time consuming

   (vi). They are heavy and take too much time to open or fold

   (vii). It is a slow method of surveying

   (vii). It is the oldest method of surveying

7(a).  The possible reasons for the uneven population distribution in the area are

    (i).   Roads such as road running from Lindi to mchinga.

    (ii).  Agriculture activities as seen in grid references 770125

    (iii). Urban settlements example at grid references 798190 nucleated settlement is seen at likonga town.

   (b).  To measure the distance of the Lindi-Nachingwea all weather road using a sheet of paper.
            By using a piece of paper the map distance of railway is 27.7cm.

                  Scale on map = 1:50000
            Change. 1:50000 into kilometres.

            1km  = 100000cm
             X       = 50000cm
      100000x = 50000x1
                    x = 50000/100000
                    x =1/2 km (one a half)

So.          1Cm = 1/2 km
                 27.7= X

                      X=27.7x 1/2

                       X= 13.85km

  Therefore length of Lindi-Nachingwea all weather road is 13.85 km

   (c). Types of climate experienced in this area is savannah/tropical climate Because of

     (i).  Latitude, which lie between  9°45' to 39°45'

     (ii). Vegetation such as shrubs.

     (iii)  Crops e.g coffee and sugar.


calculating area using the square method

     (i) Count the full square covered by forest on a map
                    Full square= 0

     (ii) Also count half square covered by forest on a map and divide it by 2 

                        Half square =   29÷2
                         Half square=14.5
    (iii) Add full square and half square result obtained by divided half square by 2
    (iv) Convert map area into actual area
                        Scale =1:50000, this means 1cm = 1/2 km 

           Use this scale to calculate area covered by forest ( 1cm=1/2km)

           Square both side 1cm=1/2km to get relationship between cm and km in square unit.                   
                        (1cm) square= (1/2) square
                          1cm square = 0.25km square

    (v) find area of one square on the map.

          To find the area of one square on the map, take a rule and measure the width multiply by itself.

                                Area of square = wxw
                                      W= 2 so 
                                         A= 2x2

          Area of one square on a map = 4cmsquare

   (vi) find the area of lake Tanganyika

                  1cm square =0.25 km square
                  4cm square = x

                              Cross multiplication

                           1xX= 4x 0.25
                               X= 1kmsquare

                  Convert 14.5 square into kilometre square

                                 14.5x1km square= 14.5km square

  Therefore Area covered by forest south of  grid line 160 = 14.5km square.

8. (a) Crop shown on a photograph is SISAL

    (b). Natural conditions which favour the growth of the crop are

      (i).  High temperature ranging between 27°cto 30°c

      (ii). Fertile soil

      (iii)  well drained soil

      (iv). Rainfall ranging between 600mm to 1300mm

    (c).  Regions of Tanzania which grow the crop at commercial lever are

      (i). Tanga

      (ii). Morogoro and

      (iii). Kilimanjaro

    (d).  The scale of production shown on this photograph is large scale agriculture.

9. Transport means the movements of goods, people and services from one place to another.

    Communication is the imparting or exchanging of information or news. It is the means of connection between people or places in particular.

     Transport and communication are inevitable in developing countries due to the following significance of transportation.

     (i) Transportation encourage the development of industry through the supply of raw materials and transportation of manufactured goods to the markets or consumer.

     (ii). Transportation create employment opportunity for example some people are employed as drivers, station master etc.

     (iii). Transportation facilitate the spread of technology in the country.

     (iv).  Transportation enhances the accessibility of places.

     (v).   Transportation lead to the promotion of trade in the world

     (vi). Transportation encourage the development of tourism in the country.

     (vii). Transportation can make goods available where they are demanded.

10. Development refer to process of changing one stage to another stage and every stage become more advance than previous one.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

        Industrial development refers to the increase of production of goods or services than previous production of goods or services.

       The following are the reasons for the low of industrial development in Sub -Saharan Africa.

     (i). Low technology used in industries.

     (ii). Low capital to be invested in industries.

     (iii). Industrial barrier imposed in form of taxes limit industrial development.

     (iv). Stiff competition from outside by developed countries.

     (v).  Poor infrastructure in developing countries example poor transport and communication facilities

     (vi). Problems of markets both local and internationally .

11. Forestry is all activities related to the development ( in case of man planted forest), development and exploitation of forests.

       Forest refers to an extensive area of land which is mostly covered by trees of different sizes and species. Or a forest is a dense growth of trees, plants and undergrowth covering a large area of land.       
The followings are the best ways which can ensure a sustainable use of forestry resources.

    (i).  Reforestation or re planting of trees both local and exotic species in the depleted areas.

    (ii). The opening of new forest estates

    (iii). Establishment of game and forest reserves where the cutting of trees or hunting is completely restricted.

    (iv). Educating the people importance of sustainable use of forestry resources.

    (v).  The government should make sure that the population control is encouraged in order to reduce over population which is dangerous to forestry resources.

   (vi). Use of other alternative energy resources e.g solar energy.

12. Agriculture is the branch of science which deals with crop cultivation and animal keeping. It is categorized as a primary activity since it involves the production of raw materials that can be used by other industries.

     Small scale agriculture is the type of agriculture (crop cultivation) where a farmer owns a piece of land covers less than 5 hectares.

      The following are the effects of rapid population growth to the small scale agriculture.

   (i)  rapid population reduces the average size of land,

   (ii) Over exploitation

   (iii) It reduced soil fertility.

   (iv)  soil erosion

   (v).  Increase in conflicts on the land

   (vi). Decrease in productivity